What was Ptolemy's greatest achievement? He was a ready patron of letters, founding the Great Library of Alexandria. Ptolemy was born in 367 as the son of a Macedonian nobleman named Lagus and a woman named Arsinoe, who may or may not have belonged to a minor branch of the Macedonian dynasty. The Rhodians granted divine honors to Ptolemy as a result of the lifting of the siege. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Ptolemy I Soter, (born 367/366 bc, Macedonia—died 283/282, Egypt), Macedonian general of Alexander the Great, who became ruler of Egypt (323–285 bc) and founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty, which reigned longer than any other dynasty established on the soil of the Alexandrian empire and only succumbed to the Romans in 30 bc. He was the founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty which ruled Egypt until the death of Cleopatra in 30 BC, turning the country into a Hellenistic kingdom and Alexandria into a center of Greek culture. #1 She was the last active pharaoh of Egypt. According to Proclus Euclid famously quipped: "Sire, there is no Royal Road to geometry."[31]. Ptolemy led no further overseas expeditions against Antigonus. His most notable accomplishments were in astronomy, with his advancement of the theory of epicycles, and as a geographer. Ptolemy I Soter, (born 367/366 bc, Macedonia—died 283/282, Egypt), Macedonian general of Alexander the Great, who became ruler of Egypt (323–285 bc) and founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty, which reigned longer than any other dynasty established on the soil of the Alexandrian empire and only succumbed to the Romans in 30 bc. After the death of Alexander in 323 BC, Ptolemy retrieved his body as it was en route to be buried in Macedon, placing it in Memphis instead, where it was later moved to Alexandria in a new tomb. According to Satyrus the Peripatetic, Arsinoe was a descendant of Alexander I of Macedon and thus a member of the Argead dynasty, claiming ultimate descent from Heracles. Ptolemy I. Ptolemy I Soter (367/366-283 B.C.) The latter invaded Egypt but was assassinated by his own officers in 320 BC, allowing Ptolemy I to consolidate his control over the country. the ptolemy family: AN ANCIENT DYSFUNCTIONAL FAMILY OF EGYPT Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. 1. He brought Alexander's remains back to Egypt, interring them at Memphis, but they were later moved to Alexandria where a tomb of Alexander the Great was constructed for them. In the coalition war of 315–311, Ptolemy obtained possession of Cyprus. [12] Ptolemy was consistent in his policy of securing a power base, while never succumbing to the temptation of risking all to succeed Alexander. Ptolemy quickly moved, without authorization, to subjugate Cyrenaica. It is a very short – 70 page – biography of Ptolemy I Soter in seven chapters tracing such as we know (which, sadly, is not a great deal) of his life as a general and successor to Alexander the Great. He ultimately suffered overwhelming defeat in 306 in the naval battle near Salamis on Cyprus. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Babylonian astronomers had developed arithmetical techniques for calculating astronomical phenomena; Greek astronomers such as Hipparchus had produced geometric models for calculating celestial motions. Ptolemy immediately crossed the Nile, to provide supplies to what had the day before been an enemy army. A revolt in Cyrene was crushed the same year. Early career Ptolemy I Soter. Ptolemy's final marriage was to Eurydice's cousin and lady-in-waiting, Berenice I. Ptolemy I died in 282 BC and was succeeded by his son with Berenice, Ptolemy II. The library at Alexandria was planned by Ptolemy I Soter and the project came to fruition under his son Ptolemy II Philadelphus. Wikimedia Commons. "Diodorus and the Date of Triparadeisus". Ptolemy began the construction of Pharos, a li… Ptolemy's complete loss of Cyprus followed. Their children were Arsinoe II, Philotera, and Ptolemy II. [5], By custom, kings in Macedonia asserted their right to the throne by burying their predecessor. Alexander, in turn, appointed him Companion, Life-guard, and Seneschal. [30], Ptolemy personally sponsored the great mathematician Euclid. Ptolemy was pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt from 305/304 BC[1] to his death. At the time, Thaïs was the lover of Ptolemy I Soter, one of Alexander's generals. R. M. Errington argued that Ptolemy's history was characterised by persistent bias and self-aggrandisement, and by systematic blackening of the reputation of Perdiccas, one of Ptolemy's chief dynastic rivals after Alexander's death. This failure was a fatal blow to Perdiccas' reputation, and he was murdered in his tent by two of his subordinates. In the history of the Mediterranean, the Hellenistic period begins with the death of Alexander III of Macedon (commonly as Alexander the Great) in 323 BC.Ptolemy (Ptolemy I Soter), a Macedonian and among the high ranking generals of Alexander during his conquest of Egypt in 332 BC, was appointed as the satrap of Egypt after Alexander’s death. In the winter of 306 BC, Antigonus tried to follow up his victory in Cyprus by invading Egypt; but Ptolemy was strongest there, and successfully held the frontier against him. But when the news came that Antigonus had been defeated and slain by Lysimachus and Seleucus at the Battle of Ipsus in 301, he occupied Syria a fourth time. [17][22], In 285, Ptolemy made his son by Berenice, Ptolemy II Philadelphus, his co-regent. He later married Eurydice, daughter of the Macedonian regent Antipater; their sons Ptolemy Keraunos and Meleager ruled in turn as kings of Macedon. Her … Alexander decorated him several times for his deeds and married him to the Persian Artacama at the mass wedding at Susa, the Persian capital, which was the crowning event of Alexander’s policy of merging the Macedonian and Iranian populations. Although he pursued a friendly policy toward Greece that secured his political influence there, he also succeeded in winning over the native Egyptian population. In Upper Egypt, Ptolemy I founded the city Ptolemais. Ptolemy was one of the major players during the Wars of the Successors and he founded Ptolemaic Egypt. Ptolemy, who distinguished himself as a cautious and trustworthy troop commander under Alexander, also proved to be a politician of unusual diplomatic and strategic ability in the long series of struggles over the throne that broke out after Alexander’s death in 323. Bust of Ptolemy I Soter, king of Egypt (305 BC–282 BC) and founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty. In 322 Ptolemy, taking advantage of internal disturbances, acquired the African Hellenic towns of Cyrenaica. Ptolemaic rule ended with the death of Cleopatra VII in 30 BC. [16][17][18][19][20][21] Ptolemy married once more to Berenice, Eurydice's cousin, who had come to Egypt as Eurydice's lady-in-waiting with the children from her first marriage to Philip. Omissions? Over the next three centuries, his descendants would follow in his path. when Philip was assassinated by a conspiracy of nobles, Ptolemy returned to the court and supported Alexander's claim to the feudal throne. She became the last in a dynasty of Macedonian rulers founded by Ptolemy, who served as general under Alexander the Great during his conquest of Egypt in 332 B.C. Ptolemy's contribution as a historian is immense; he wrote an eyewitness history of Alexander's campaigns (which is now lost). Ptolemy I Soter - Ptolemy I Soter - King of Egypt: After naming himself king, Ptolemy’s first concern was the continuing war with Antigonus, which was now focussed on the island of Rhodes. [14], The other members of the coalition had assigned all Syria to Seleucus, after what they regarded as Ptolemy's desertion, and for the next hundred years, the question of the ownership of southern Syria (i.e., Judea) produced recurring warfare between the Seleucid and Ptolemaic dynasties. Of Alexander 's claim to the Oracle in the later campaigns in Afghanistan and India History of.... Last edited on 10 January 2021, at 04:40 she is most famous for instigating the of. 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