'"[37][38], A prominent endorsement of the Living Constitution concept was heard in the 2000 presidential campaign by the Democratic candidate, Al Gore.[39]. While the arguments for the Living Constitution vary, they can generally be broken into two categories. This provision can be and has been abused to allow a government to suppress dissent without regard for human rights – see the article on state of emergency. ", Franklin's statement reads "It would be a strange thing if Six Nations of ignorant savages should be capable of forming a scheme for such an union, and be able to execute it in such a manner as that it has subsisted ages and appears indissoluble; and yet that a like union should be impracticable for ten or a dozen English colonies, to whom it is more necessary and must be more advantageous, and who cannot be supposed to want an equal understanding of their interests.". This finally met its demise in conjunction with the death of Cromwell and the Restoration of the monarchy. Supreme Court of Canada, in its ruling, Re: Same-Sex Marriage, December, That the UK constitution only needs a simple majority to amend ". Constitutions concern different levels of organizations, from sovereign countries to companies and unincorporated associations. In such a case, only that application may be ruled unconstitutional. This led to considerations of what authority monarchs or other officials have and don't have, from where that authority derives, and the remedies for the abuse of such authority.[67]. The Constitution of the United Kingdom is a set of laws and rules in the United Kingdom that governs how the country is organized and the basic rights and freedoms of the people.. Article Five of the U.S. Constitution prohibits any amendments which would deprive a state of its "equal Suffrage in the Senate" without that state's consent. Nigeria has had a series of constitutions. But although a degree of elasticity is thus imparted, not to the meaning, but to the application of constitutional principles, statutes and ordinances, which, after giving due weight to the new conditions, are found clearly not to conform to the Constitution, of course, must fall. Toronto: Emond Montgomery Publications Ltd., 2003, p. 5. Most of the concepts and ideas embedded into modern constitutional theory, especially bicameralism, separation of powers, the written constitution, and judicial review, can be traced back to the experiments of that period.[43]. Codified constitutions normally consist of a ceremonial preamble, which sets forth the goals of the state and the motivation for the constitution, and several articles containing the substantive provisions. For example, the Myanmar 2008 Constitution was secretly drafted for more than 17 years,[13] whereas on the other extreme, like the case of the Japan's 1946 Constitution, the bureaucrats drafted everything in no more than a week. Constitutional design has been treated as a kind of metagame in which play consists of finding the best design and provisions for a written constitution that will be the rules for the game of government, and that will be most likely to optimize a balance of the utilities of justice, liberty, and security. [40] Anthropologist Dean Snow stated that though Franklin's Albany Plan may have drawn some inspiration from the Haudenosaunee Confederacy, there is little evidence that either the Plan or the Constitution drew substantially from this source and argues that "...such claims muddle and denigrate the subtle and remarkable features of Iroquois government. [31][36] Stanford University historian Jack N. Rakove stated that "the voluminous records we have for the constitutional debates of the late 1780s contain no significant references to the Iroquois" and stated that there are ample European precedents to the democratic institutions of the United States. It was added to the Constitution as an afterthought and was not discussed on the floor of the Constitutional Convention nor was it voted on. [55] It was adopted by the Great Sejm and is considered the first constitution of its kind in Europe and the world's second oldest one after the American Constitution.[56]. The precise dating of the Constitution of Medina remains debated but generally scholars agree it was written shortly after the Hijra (622).[24]. It has to change with society, like a living organism, or it will become brittle and break. 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